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Androlepsy (from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Androlepsy, in ancient Greek law, was a custom in Athens that if a citizen was killed abroad, and the criminal was not delivered for punishment, it was held lawful to take three citizens of the offending community, and punish them for the homicide. This the Greeks called androlepsia, and the Romans clarigatio.
The word is formed of άνήρ, "man", and λαμβάνω, "I take".

Some authors also use androlepsia for reprisals. --from a reader

The definition you provide could be supplemented by that of the law dictionaries, as in that below:

"ANDROLEPSY. The taking by one nation of the citizens or subjects of another, in order to compel the latter to do justice to the former. Wolff. Sec. 1164; Molloy, de Jure Mar. 26."

I don't have my OED here, and I can't get to it easily, but I do recall that Webster's 2nd has a definition of "Androlepsy" that says the "citizens" of another government who are seized are, specifically, diplomats -- which is why earlier I wrote that the word "androlepsy" fit perfectly the Teheran Embassy seizure, but not quite so perfectly that of foreign military men seized not within the country, but outside it, even if it is claimed, obviously falsely, that they were in the territorial waters of Iran, in what must surely be the unpleasant debouchment at the base of what is, for English ears, so memorably called the Shatt al-Arab.