Sunday, 29 June 2008
A Musical Interlude: You Wouldn't Fool Me, Would You? (Annette Hanshaw)
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Posted on 06/29/2008 11:25 AM by Hugh Fitzgerald
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Sunday, 29 June 2008
Ockham's Metaphysics
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Bruce Thornton has an interesting review of George Weigel's book, Against the Grain: Christianity and Democracy, War and Peace, at City Journal. Like Richard Weaver, Weigel locates the origin of the modern breakdown of metaphysics and morality in William of Ockham. Weaver traces Ockham's thought through Puritanism and on into modern liberalism.

...Weigel’s essay “Two Ideas of Freedom” begins by critically examining Isaiah Berlin’s influential notion of “positive” and “negative” freedom: the former is the freedom “to,” which allows us to pursue some perceived greater good; the latter is freedom “from,” particularly from governmental intrusion into private life and interference in the individual’s pursuit of happiness. But Berlin fails to address “the crucial question,” Weigel writes, which is “the truth about man—the truth about the human person—on which any defense of human freedom with real traction must ultimately rest.” Thus Berlin’s notion of freedom reduces it “to a matter of one human faculty—the will—alone.”

Pointing out that Berlin’s analysis is rooted in Enlightenment philosophy and ignores earlier thinkers, Weigel revisits pre-Enlightenment thinking in his discussion of William of Ockham and Saint Thomas Aquinas. For Aquinas, freedom “is a means to human excellence, to human happiness, to the fulfillment of human destiny,” Weigel writes. Freedom helps us to “choose wisely and to act well as a matter of habit.” Only then can we pursue happiness suitable for a rational, moral creature and “build free and virtuous societies in which the rights of all are acknowledged, respected, and protected in law.”

In contrast to Aquinas, Berlin’s intellectual ancestor Ockham reduces freedom to “a neutral faculty of choice, and choice is everything—for choice is a matter of self-assertion, of power,” Weigel writes. Thus freedom has nothing to do with goodness, truth, or virtue. The moral life is now severed from human nature, and humans are severed from one another, “for there can be no ‘common good’ if there are only the particular goods of particular men and women who are each acting out their own particular willfulness.” Moreover, by putting reason into conflict with freedom, Ockham “created a situation in which there are only two options: determinisms of a biological, racial, or ideological sort, or the radical relativism” that eventually leads to nihilism. “In either case,” Weigel believes, “freedom self-destructs.”

Weigel traces the consequences of an Ockhamite understanding of freedom shorn from virtue and moral truth, or the “freedom of indifference” that dominates “much of Western high culture.” Advances in genetics and biotechnology entice us with the promise of human engineering for perfection and immortality, while cloning and stem-cell research destroy human embryos in the service of various ends. By ignoring Aquinas’s notion of “freedom for excellence” we are unlikely “to deploy our new genetic knowledge in ways that lead to human flourishing rather than to the soulless dystopia of the brave new world.” More immediately dangerous is moral relativism, which has been on display throughout the culture in response to the challenge of Islamic jihad; it is an outgrowth of the separation of freedom from moral truth. Meeting the Islamist challenge, Weigel writes, requires not the flabby tolerance or guilty self-loathing engendered by such moral relativism, but rather a patriotism that is the “expression of a nobler concept of freedom than mere willfulness.” For ultimately, “Homo Voluntatis cannot give an account of a freedom worth sacrificing, even dying, for.” Absent such patriotism, we will end up in the state of appeasement that Weigel documents in his essay “Is Europe Dying?,” a brilliant survey of a culture that can no longer reproduce itself or act against Islam’s “aggressive anti-humanism fueled by a distorted theism.”...

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Posted on 06/29/2008 10:45 AM by Rebecca Bynum
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Sunday, 29 June 2008
Clich? corner
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Am I the only person in the world who thinks "am I the only person in the world" is a cliché?

And pseudo-archaic word order does not a cliché make. Not after the first few times.

And when will people stop saying "poster child"? Why did they ever start?

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Posted on 06/29/2008 9:49 AM by Mary Jackson
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Sunday, 29 June 2008
Quote Of The Day
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New Duranty:

Sayed Kashua is a talented Israeli-Arab journalist and novelist who writes in Hebrew. On the one hand, Kashua says, Hebrew is “the language of the enemy, the conqueror.” But at the same time, “there are things I can write about in Hebrew that I cannot write about in Arabic. ... I need Hebrew to write about freedom.”

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Posted on 06/29/2008 8:53 AM by Rebecca Bynum
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Sunday, 29 June 2008
Some Operatic and Orchestral Interludes ? Courtesy of My Father ? and a few thoughts thereon
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This Queen of Babylon, the incomparable Joan Sutherland, does such justice to the role and sings this great aria from Rossini’s Semiramide so superbly that one just knows, has to know, that she, and this, are indeed a ‘Bright ray of hope’ – bel raggio lusinghier. Let’s face it, we need all the bright rays of hope which we can get these days! I first heard this great Diva at the Fenice, I think, singing Gilda when my father took me there as a very young child more years ago than I care to remember – and many years before the last fire! This is but a pale shadow of that first childhood experience.

 

Afterwards, my father, wise old man that he was, is, took me out to eat at a cafe in the Calle Larga de l'Ascension, in San Marco – sorry, I can’t, after all these years, remember the name of the cafe we dined in (but I could walk you there tomorrow), but I know, I remember, that wonderful sense of being two grown up men together – father and son – out on the town, even though I was just a child my memory invests that night with a great significance. I’m sure that you know how important I felt that I was – I’d just been invited into the grown-up world by the most important male adult in my life – my wonderful father.

 

He had, still has, a superb understanding of everything that we are. My father was, is still, a believer in freedom, in art, in culture, in science, in us; in short, he is a polymath – a modern polymath, for he is a practical man – a chartered engineer – but, and most importantly, a cultured and tolerant man who introduced me, as a child, to the great arts – and to great music.

 

So, my beloved father, this is for you. Oh, and thanks for the Grosser Tiergarten and for believing in me so much that you made me face No. 4, Tiergartenstrasse, that stupid bus station – how banal, what on earth was I afraid of – last year, and thank-you for holding my hand and weeping with me – it haunts me still, as you meant it to, and, as I limp through life now, now at last, I see what you wanted me to see.

 

And thank-you, my dear, dear father, for teaching me how not to hate but to love and to love , despite that stupid autobus station in Berlin.

 

And thank-you for teaching me to recognise intolerance and hatred – even in myself – that was a hard lesson to learn.

 

So now I want to say just one simple thing:

 

“Thank-you, Dad.”

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Posted on 06/29/2008 7:28 AM by John Joyce
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Saturday, 28 June 2008
A Cinematic Musical Interlude: Gallagher And Shean
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Posted on 06/28/2008 5:40 PM by Hugh Fitzgerald
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Saturday, 28 June 2008
American Muslims Training Hamas
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From the World Tribune (hat tip: Creeping Sharia):

GAZA CITY — U.S. volunteers with military backgrounds have been recruited to help train the new Hamas army in the Gaza Strip.

Palestinian sources said one of the Americans was former U.S. Army captain Fares Al Ashi, Middle East Newsline reported.

"This information is important for the youth," Al Ashi said during a briefing to visiting journalists in Gaza City.

The sources said Al Ashi, a specialist in explosives and weapons, had been trained in South Carolina during his years with the U.S. military.

"We give them general information about the explosives, those manufactured locally and the Israeli ones, because those people always reach the dangerous places before we, the bomb squad, do."

Al Ashi and the other Americans were said to have been identified as Muslims who joined the U.S. military in the 1990s. The sources said the Americans relayed U.S. military methods and training to Hamas for its war against Israel.

The Hamas army has been equipped and trained by Iran. But Palestinian sources said some Muslims in the United States have provided funding and expertise to the new Hamas regime and military.

In May 2008, Hamas police launched a police training program assisted by the U.S. trainers. The four-month training course has been directed by Maj. Khalil Hejo and seven other officers...

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Posted on 06/28/2008 4:37 PM by Rebecca Bynum
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Saturday, 28 June 2008
A Gloss
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"'Islamic Jihad reserves the right to respond to all Israeli violations,'one of the group's Gaza chiefs Khaled al-Batch said on Saturday, but added they would 'not take the initiative in breaking the calm."

'If the crossing points (with Gaza) do not reopen, if the siege and the aggression does not stop, the calm will go up in smoke,"'Batch added, repeating that Israeli attacks in the West Bank would spark retaliation from Gaza.

'In the West Bank or in Gaza, we are the children of a single cause and a single land,' he added.'      -- from this news item

Islamic Jihad, the terrorist subsidiary of the Terrorism-And-Accounting-While-You-Wait group Fatah (d/b/a, that is doing business as -- and how !--the "Palestinian Authority")  tells us, while it lobs rockets into Israel from Gaza, that if the Israelis do not start shipping those daily deliveries of food, medicine, gasoline, DVD videos, Q-tips, the works, then there will be hell to pay. How can the Gazan Arabs be expected to be in a good mood about making war on Israeli men, women and children at the first available opportunity if they can't rely on Israeli goods and services to keep being shipped. For god's sake, what do the Israelis expect of them? Have they no understanding, those Israelis? Have they no shame?  And the Israelis simply must stop  dealing with the Arabs in the "West Bank" who engage in terrorism, for that would guarantee an end to any comical "calm" from Gaza.

They are one: the Gazan Arabs and the "West Bank" Arabs. That's what they say themselves. They are "the children of a single cause and a single land." Again, that's what they say, and they might also have added that all Muslim Arabs are "the children of a single cause and a single land." The single cause is the cause of Islam, that is the Jihad, the "struggle" in which it is a duty for all Believers to take part, directly or indirectly, employing whatever methods appear to be most effective. And the single land is Dar al-Islam, the undifferentiated land of the Believers, expanding as best it can, through their tireless efforts, or trying to, just as fast as it possibly can.

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Posted on 06/28/2008 2:25 PM by Hugh Fitzgerald
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Saturday, 28 June 2008
Dewey, Cheatham, and Howe
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"In the U.S., land of sensible and staid names, we have to settle for the law firm of Dewey, Cheatham, and Howe."
--Special Guest

Though that firm has always interviewed at the top law schools. such as Harvard, Yale, Stanford, Michigan, the University of Chicago -- those five traditionally provide some of the best associates for that particular firm, which despite its large size has only become widely known across America thanks to constant end-of-program mention by Click and Clack, whom "Special Guest" has in a previous comment wittily transformed into "clique and claque"  -- the Magliozzi Brothers, by the way, foreigners might like to know, are the keepers of the flame of common sense on our public radio station.

The firm of Dewey, Cheatham and Howe now has, or used to have, its own prominent sign in the window of the  second-story sign of a building in the middle of Harvard Square, above what long ago was a pharmacy. But that pharmacy went the way, or perhaps led the way, in the disappearance of so many of the old-line stores, such places as Briggs and Briggs, and Olsen's, and Bernheimer's, and S. S. Pierce, and Sage's, all eventually gone and replaced, or not really replaced, by the deep-pocketed chainstores that have come in, on orders from headquarters far way, from outside.

The commodification of Harvard Square has proceeded pari passu with the commodification of Harvard University itself.

Now, how did I get off the original subject of Dewey, Cheatham, and Howe? Or did I get off it? Am I not merely talking about the working out, in practice, of Dewey, of Cheatham, and -- let's not forget -- of Howe?

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Posted on 06/28/2008 10:14 AM by Hugh Fitzgerald
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Saturday, 28 June 2008
What's In A Name?
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A Southeast Washington man who did not disclose his Muslim name on an application for a job as a private security guard at Andrews Air Force Base was convicted yesterday of making a false statement.
--from the article linked below

I think it just as important that Muslims who continue to write about Islam without identifying themselves properly, be so identified. For example, the Times Literary Supplement sometimes carries the work of someone who, at the TLS, likes to call himself "Tim Winter." He was "Tim Winter" once, but he is "Tim Winter" in every important respect no longer. Instead, he is, and should be properly identified, for readers of the TLS, as Abdul Hakim Murad. Abdul Hakim Murad also has some kind of affiliation with Cambridge, and who knows? may even ply his trade within sight of Trinity Great Court, still haunted by the ghosts of, inter alios, Newton, A. E. Housman, and Vladimir Nabokov, not one of whom would find anything at all appealing about the mental makeup, the mental submission to the Total Belief-System of Islam, of Abdul Hakim Murad. That's the kind of thing one might, decades ago, have simply regarded as part of the expected mental primitivism of some foreigner, a rich undergraduate who managed somehow to get in, the nephew of an oil sheik  from the Gulf or son of a zamindar from the Punjab. It's not fit, it's unseemly, for members of the faculty, however junior, of a major Western university.  That everyone has grown accustomed to such bizarreries is not a healthy sign of tolerance and diversity and so on and so forth, but of a failure to recognize a development both comical and sinister. I wonder what Schacht, what Snouck Hurgronje, would make of Muslims -- especially Western converts or "reverts" to Islam -- now teaching Islam, even dominating the Western teaching of Islam, to Western students.

But at the very least, it is proper to identify them as believers in the ideology of Islam, that is as Muslims, if they have  already openly assumed, as Abdul Hamid Murad has, Muslim names, but are careful not to use that name in  some contexts, such as in signed reviews in  the TLS, though not reluctant to use their Muslim names on other occasions, with other audiences.

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Posted on 06/28/2008 10:06 AM by Hugh Fitzgerald
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Saturday, 28 June 2008
Whole Lot Of Usurping Going On
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"Allen studies the way voters in a democracy gather their information and act on what they learn. "
--from the article linked below

After a D.Phil. (not the same thing as a Ph.D., for no course work is required, and one can be sure, if one finds a sympathetic overseer, or one in this lady's case not looking for trouble, to receive the degree) in Classics, and then one in Government, Cambridge and Harvard respectively, she had the proper resume: "The resume she sat on, like a burnished throne..." The hollowness or possible hollownesses, would escape most, who do not know how these things are done, or what else went into the mix.

And now, with those two degrees, having been singled out for one of those MacArthur "genius grants" that have very little to do with genius, especially in the last decade or so when they have become heavily politicized, she makes her way to the Institute for Advanced Study. Weil was right: the social sciences should have been kept out. Clifford Geertz, Robert Bellah (I think), and now this -- not elementary particle physics, not the foundations of logic, not art history, not Panofsky and Godel and Einstein, but a mere psephologist, a "student" or "scholar" of elections, whose field is how voters gather information.

Hint: they gather it any damn way they can, and usually most imperfectly.

That's what merits a post these days at what I took to be the last quasi-holdout, the Institute for Advanced Study? The "study" of how voters acquire information is on a par with the kind of things, the otherworldly things, whether of matter or of the spirit, with which that Institute has always been associated?

Is there no end to this?

Yeats wrote about "the beating down of the wise/And great art beaten down." Well, you can beat the wise down if you don't leave any places and spaces for them, but give those posts and places, everywhere, and the glittering prizes, and the essential money, to the usurpers.

Whole lot of usurping going on.

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Posted on 06/28/2008 9:59 AM by Hugh Fitzgerald
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Saturday, 28 June 2008
The Best And Brightest Working To Limit Free Speech
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From the Mclean's/Steyn "trial" in British Columbia to the efforts to pass hate speech legislation in America, the trend in the Western world is overwhelmingly toward suppression of the free expression of free people. There is a long and disturbing story in the Washington Post this morning on the efforts of one "razor-sharp" female African-American political theorist with doctorates from Cambridge and Harvard, and who won a $500,000 MacArthur Foundation genius grant, who is using all her massive brain power to find a way to suppress speech on the internet because she didn't like that mass email which talked about Senator Obama's Muslim background. (hat tip: Byron York)

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Posted on 06/28/2008 8:39 AM by Rebecca Bynum
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Saturday, 28 June 2008
A Musical Interlude: Put Your Little Arms Around Me (Ray Noble Orch., voc. Al Bowlly)
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Posted on 06/28/2008 8:39 AM by Hugh Fitzgerald
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Saturday, 28 June 2008
A Cinematic Interlude: Alistair Sim Rents A Room
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Posted on 06/28/2008 8:05 AM by Hugh Fitzgerald
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Saturday, 28 June 2008
Air Base Ex-Guard Convicted of Hiding Muslim Name
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A Southeast Washington man who did not disclose his Muslim name on an application for a job as a private security guard at Andrews Air Force Base was convicted yesterday of making a false statement.
Darrick Jackson, 38, left his Muslim name off the application, prosecutors said, to conceal his ties to a local imam known for inflammatory comments.
Jackson, whose first trial ended last year with a hung jury, was tried again this week in federal court in Greenbelt. After deliberating for about a day and a half, the jury found Jackson guilty.
He faces up to five years in prison.
Jackson's attorney, John Chamble, has argued that his client misunderstood the question -- "Have you ever used or been known by another name?" -- thinking it referred to a woman's maiden name.
But assistant U.S. attorneys David I. Salem and Emily Glatfelter said the omission during a 2005 background investigation was a deliberate attempt to keep his ties to Musa and the mosque secret.
On the application, Jackson indicated that he had no other names.
Jackson also is known as Abdul-Jalil Mohammad, prosecutors said. (In some prosecution filings, the last part of Jackson's Muslim name is spelled "Mohammed.")
In an interview last night, Musa said the prosecution was "hassling Muslims."
The U.S. attorney for Maryland, Rod J. Rosenstein, has defended the prosecution of Jackson, saying it is not about the defendant's religion but about ensuring the security of U.S. government installations.
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Posted on 06/28/2008 7:57 AM by Esmerelda Weatherwax
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Saturday, 28 June 2008
The daily round, the common task
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I got up this morning, put the coffee on - need to get some more - and had cereal. I usually have Special K, but today I thought I'd live dangerously and have Shredded Wheat. Am I the only person in the world who likes Shredded Wheat? These days it's all Cheery-Os and Crunchy Nut Cornflakes. Whatever happened to Ready-Brek? Got to put some washing on. I like those tablets, don't you? A lot easier than measuring the powder out like in the old days.

All right, all right, I'll stop now. Boring, isn't it?

Long before blogging, people - women, mainly - have treated the public to details about their everyday lives. They write about their kids, their cars, their washing machines, their new TV and their pets. Occasionally some of this is interesting. Even breakfast cereal could probably be made interesting in the right hands. Mostly it isn't.

The internet has added a further dimension to this twittering: now people can blog about their cornflakes  and blog about blogging about their cornflakes. They can send emails about their cornflakes, and post cornflake bulletins on MySpace and FaceBook. Thanks to instant messaging services and Skype, they can give real-time information about the crunchiness - or sogginess - of those cornflakes. Perhaps John Harvey Kellogg would approve. At least it gives them something to do with their hands. Katherine Berry in Pajamas Media blogs about emails about blogs about emails about everyday life. It's too much information, she complains:

I am just sitting down at my laptop with my first cup of morning coffee when an IM pops onto my screen: “Did u like 2days entry?” I glance at the sender’s screen name and blink repeatedly as I try to remember just who this person is. It takes a couple of moments before I realize the IM is from a fellow blogger with whom I’ve exchanged frequent emails but whose blog, in all honesty, I don’t read very often. She bores me.

So I quickly visit her website to read her latest entry. Just as I’m trying to think of a polite way to comment on an otherwise mind-numbing piece of drivel, my browser’s Twitter sidebar updates to inform me that a friend who’s a new father just changed his baby’s diaper, that a fellow homeschooling Mom was stuck in the drive-thru lane at McDonald’s, and that another blogging acquaintance was about to have her second cup of coffee for the day. Meanwhile, my own coffee had grown cold.

Well, she just had to tell you that. And I just had to tell you this.

Got to go - the coffee's ready, and I must feed the cat. If you want to know how the washing went, just ask.

STOP PRESS: Got to put the dishwasher on too. What next?

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Posted on 06/28/2008 7:15 AM by Mary Jackson
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Saturday, 28 June 2008
Meeting Of The Pickwick Club
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"British businessman Robert Bittlestone, Cambridge classicist James Diggle, and University of Edinburgh geologist John Underhill."
--from the article linked below

Bittlestone, Diggle, and Underhill? 

In its younger days, in its rise-and-shine Ross-and-Shawn days, before it became middle-aged and was turned over to the young and the with-it, The New Yorker used to carry, under the rubric "There'll Always Be An England" little bottom-of-the-page items such as the excerpt above, its humor derived from those names that, to literate Americans, would seem quintessentially English, though in this case the names in question are not in the anthony-ashley-cooper, henry-chenevix-ffrench pip-pip-cheerio-and-tallyho (they all get jumbled together in our impressionable minds) line, but rather in the dickensian pickwickian mode. Such names as Bittlestone, Diggle, Underhill, especially when they appear together, sound to Americans like people dragged by Mr. Alfred Jingle to an extraordinary meeting of the Pickwick Club to be held, weather permitting, this very evening at Dingley Dell. And what could be more fitting than those names Bittleston and Underhill and Diggle appearing together in a paragraph about a study to locate, through geology and, impliedly, archaeology, the exact location of Homer's Ithaca, the place from which wily Odysseus set out, and to which wily Odysseus returned, after many adventures under the protection of grey-eyed Athena, Pallas Athena. Yes, what names could be more dickensianly apt for such a scholarly enterprise or undertaking than that of Underhill, than that of Diggle? Especially Diggle.  

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Posted on 06/28/2008 7:44 AM by Hugh Fitzgerald
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Saturday, 28 June 2008
Musical Interlude ? The Wonderful Kathleen Ferrier
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Do you know, I was fourteen years old before I knew that there was any other version of this song but this one – and what was the point of gaining that knowledge when this is so nearly perfect. Over forty-five years later she still sends shivers up my spine. I hope she does it for you, too.

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Posted on 06/28/2008 7:42 AM by John Joyce
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Saturday, 28 June 2008
Antisemitism Is A National Security Threat
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Europe, and therefore Western civilization, and therefore civilization, is likely to live or die on the basis of whether a sufficient number of Europeans can be made to come to their senses in time about the meaning, and menace, of Islam. One of the chief obstacles to clear thinking in Europe is the misunderstanding of the war made on Israel. That misunderstanding, that failure to see that war as a classic Jihad, and then to understand that similar Jihads are being waged on Infidels, using various instruments of which qitaal, combat, is only one and hardly the most effective.

The misrepresentation of the war being made, or rather Jihad being waged, against Israel, as something else, as a "two tiny peoples" business, a "legitimate struggle by the 'Palestinian people' for self-determination," comes from a steady, determined, calculated misrepresentation fostered by, and often created by, those who exhibit all the signs of the pathological condition we call antisemitism. And as long  as the real nature of the war being waged against Israel fails to be understood as a Jihad, then the real nature of Islam itself will not be properly understood. And the nature of Jihad, its textual sources, its definition, its current instruments, has to be understood by a sufficient number of the people of Western Europe if they are to take appropriate measures to save themselves.

Thus antisemites have become a threat to the security not only of Israel, but of the peoples of Western Europe, by helping to delay the day of their recognition of the threat they face. It was exactly thus in the 1930s. It is that way again.

Antisemitism is a national security question; its carriers, its sufferers, are a threat to national security, everywhere in the Western world. They should be regarded, and dealt with, accordingly --placed far from positions where they can do even more harm than, by existing and spreading, where they can, their diseased antipathies (and equally diseased sympathies), they already do.

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Posted on 06/28/2008 7:38 AM by Hugh Fitzgerald
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Friday, 27 June 2008
When Troy Fell, Where Was Ithaca?
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Across at Sciencedaily.com it seems that there might be some answers to these formidable questions.

 

In this article there is possible answer to the first question – the date of the fall of Troy

 

Among countless other debates about Homer's Odyssey -- not the least of which is whether the entire poem can be attributed to Homer himself -- is whether Odysseus returns home to experience a total solar eclipse. But a Rockefeller University scientist and a colleague from Argentina believe they have found astronomical references in the Odyssey that provide corroborating evidence of this celestial event.

 

            [...]

 

The researchers combed through the Odyssey to find specific astronomical references that could be precisely identified as occurring on specific days throughout Odysseus's journey. Then, they aligned each of those dates with the date of Odysseus's return, the same day he murders the suitors who had taken advantage of his long absence to court his wife.

 

This other article might answer the second question – the precise location of Ithaca

 

Results of geologic tests released on January 9, 2007, by British businessman Robert Bittlestone, Cambridge classicist James Diggle, and University of Edinburgh geologist John Underhill suggest further evidence to support the hypothesis that Homer's Ithaca can be found on western Kefalonia as reported in the January 2007 issue of Geotimes magazine, published by the American Geological Institute (AGI).

 

This hypothesis, fully explained in Geotimes, suggests that the western peninsula of the modern-day Greek island Kefalonia, called Paliki, was a separate island 3,000 years ago. Landslides and rockfalls from earthquakes filled in the valley between Kefalonia and Paliki, thus disguising the ancient landscape that was described by Homer in the Odyssey.

 

You can find Kefalonia (Cephallonia) using this map. It’s just off the west coast of Greece.

 

Taken together, these are two fascinating little articles and it’s entirely possible that both are correct.

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Posted on 06/27/2008 7:35 PM by John Joyce
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